This excursion begins with a dugout canoe ride into the most bird rich rain forest system known on earth, and it concludes with an ascent to the cloud forests and puna of the high Andes that concealed Machu Picchu until the beginning of the 20th century. Peru offers travelers a primordial blend of vanishing birds, ancient civilizations, and magnificent scenery. Using three lodges in the Amazon basin—Refugio Amazonas, Tambopata Research Center, and Posada Amazonas Lodge—we will explore the jungle, river, oxbow lakes, and lagoons in search of an incredible variety of birds, while also enjoying sparkling butterflies, colorful amphibians, and abundant mammals. On a visit to the single most important clay lick in the whole of the Amazon basin—just five minutes away from our lodge—we could find over 1000 parrots of 10-15 species, including Red-and-green, Blue-and-yellow, Scarlet, Red-bellied, Chestnut-fronted, and Blue-headed Macaws. A sturdy canopy observation tower at another lodge affords us an opportunity to study raptors, toucans, barbets, and puffbirds as they are rarely seen. The Tambopata Reserve is also home for Harpy Eagle. Monitored by the local indigenous people who reap the benefits of our ecotourism, we will be shown a Harpy nest if any are active within range of the Research Center. Always difficult to observe, mammals living along the Río Tambopata include Giant River Otters, Tayras, Pacas, tropical cats, and Brazilian Tapir, as well as a staggering variety of monkeys, tamarins, and marmosets. Leaving the Amazon, we travel through the Urubamba Valley en route to the high Andes. On a day in the precincts of Abra El Málaga, 13,500’ in elevation, Andean Condor is a good possibility. Starkly pastoral alpine valleys are dotted with llamas, alpacas, and austere stone structures that shelter the direct descendents of the Inca empire. Dropping from the puna into the magical realm of Polylepis forest, birds here may include Bearded Mountaineer, Plain-breasted Earthcreeper, Giant Conebill, and Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant. For many, the climax of our trip will be a visit to the “Lost City of the Incas,” Machu Picchu. We will not only investigate the ruins, rediscovered in 1911, but also the nearby cloud forests, home to Andean Cock-of-the-rock and the endemic Inca Wren. Birds found on our hotel grounds, adjacent to the ruins, may include such lovelies as Lyre-tailed Nightjar, Highland Motmot, White-eared Solitaires, and flowering trees full of montane hummingbirds. In Peru, the beauty of nature is rivaled only by the beautiful monuments of by-gone civilizations.